Whether there are communal riots in India, sectarian and ethnic violence in Pakistan, rift between monarchy and the communist party in Nepal, rivalry and conflict between the main political parties in Bangladesh or the power struggle in Afghanistan after Soviet withdrawal, South Asia faces regional security threats because of internal crisis and conflicts of the states. Being one of the most ethnically, culturally and linguistically diverse regions, it has witnessed many inter-state and intra-state conflicts and war which have disturbed the overall security of the region.
South Asia is the second most violent place on earth after Iraq. While conflicts in Afghanistan and Pakistan have attracted global attention, parts of India, Sri Lanka, and Nepal have also experienced long-running conflict. The result is human misery, destruction of infrastructure and social cohesion, and death.
What Triggers Conflict? ' Conflicts can be triggered by low economic growth which leads to a lower economic opportunity cost of rebellion against state in poor areas. Low economic growth in certain areas can be the result of unequal distribution in gains from development or political marginalization. A second trigger for conflicts is a natural disaster. The lagging regions of South Asia suffer from both types of problems – low economic growth and higher vulnerability to natural disasters. The lagging regions have experienced much slower economic growth compared to leading regions. They are also more vulnerable to droughts and floods. The consequences of conflict on development are more severe in lagging regions because they have weak institutions, poor geography, and are poorly integrated with global markets. These are also the characteristics that limit economic growth in lagging regions.
Leading regions also suffer from conflict and poverty in South Asia but they have managed them better because of rapid economic growth and job creation.